Additional Resources

Kennedy, H. P., Cheyney, M., Lawlor, M., Myers, S., Schuiling, K., & Tanner, T. (2015). The development of a consensus statement on normal physiologic birth: A modified Delphi Study. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 60(2), 140–145. 

The consensus statement by ACNM, MANA, and NACPM is that:
 “A normal physiologic labor and birth is one that is powered by the innate human capacity of the woman and fetus. This birth is more likely to be safe and healthy because there is no unnecessary intervention that disrupts normal physiologic processes”.


Smith, V., Gallagher, L., Carroll, M., Hannon, K., & Begley, C. (2019). Antenatal and intrapartum interventions for reducing caesarean section, promoting vaginal birth, and reducing fear of childbirth: An overview of Systematic Reviews. PLOS ONE, 14(10).
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